3 Steps to Improve Reflux Naturally

heartburn-indigestionSince you have already read my article on how low stomach acid, or hypochlorhydria, causes the symptoms of reflux (heartburn, sore throat, coughing, etc), we will now discuss how to improve digestion and increase stomach acid naturally. If you have not read the article, you may want to catch up, so you understand the physiology behind this new “radical” treatment approach.

How Reflux and Heartburn Develops

Now that we know you have acid outside the stomach, we need to work on keeping the acid where it belongs: inside the stomach.

In the low stomach acid scenario, I am suggesting that we can correct acid reflux symptoms by increasing the stomach acid thus allowing it to properly go down into the intestines instead of up into the esophagus.

We keep stomach acid inside the stomach by increasing acid levels, restoring the mucous lining, and improving the quality of food entering the stomach.


Increasing Acid Levels

3528530I understand that this idea sounds bizarre and outrageous, but if you understand the physiology, it begins to make sense. So, here’s the thought process on healing and restoring digestion.

Since the stomach is not making enough acid to digest the food, we need to supplement the stomach with more acid in order to decrease the pH, making it stronger. You can do this with a product called Betaine HCl. It may not surprise you to find out that HCl stands for Hydrochloride. The HCl interacts with water and turns into hydrochloric acid, the same substance your stomach uses to breakdown food. Adding acid when eating your meal improves the speed of the chemical breakdown of food and lowers the stomach to the correct pH or level of acidity. When this occurs, the pylorus opens, accepting the stomach contents with wide open arms. Once stomach acid is moving down appropriately (instead of up), acid reflux symptoms improve.

A note of caution, not everyone’s stomachs are prepared to increase the stomach acid, so if you add Betaine HCl and develop burning, you need to immediately stop and consult a functional medicine physician. You need to repair before you can increase acidity.


peptic_ulcer_development_1Restoring Mucous Lining

The stomach is a very acidic environment. In fact, if you stuck your finger in the acid, you wouldn’t like the sensation. So, how does the stomach create an acidic environment without digesting itself? Great question! It protects itself from its own acid by creating a mucous lining above the cells. This prevents the acid from touching the surface of the stomach. When the mucous lining wears thin, you can irritate the lining of the stomach and develop gastritis (inflammation) or ulcers. When this happens, it is a good idea to neutralize the acid with stomach acid reducers while restoring the mucous lining. There are several supplements that may be used to repair the lining:

Licorice (deglycyrrhized), Aloe Vera, Marshmellow root extract, and Slippery elm bark to name a few.

Once the lining is restored, the mucous layer can be produced, and the stomach tissue is relieved now that its not being scorched by the acid.

Improving Food Quality

mucous lining

Food quality and nutrient composition greatly affects the functions of the stomach. It affects both the stomach acid intensity and mucous layer quality. Food sensitivities and allergies can cause immune system activation into the stomach and esophagus. Eosinophilic esophagitis has been on the rise in the past decade due to food sensitivities and allergies. Discovering food irritants with an elimination diet or a structured meal plan can help uncover hidden food irritants.

As the lining of your stomach strengthens with the improved nutrition, your stomach will be able to handle more difficult meals in the future. After all, you probably weren’t born with acid reflux. It developed over decades of improper eating habits.

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5 Reasons to get off of Stomach Acid Reducers

NexiumPillsStomach acid reducing medications like omeprazole (Prilosec, Nexium, Dexilant) and ranitidine (Zantac, Pepcid) may be saving you from heartburn, but they’re not saving you from the heartache of long-term concerns. I think it’s self-explanatory to say that if you have to take heartburn medications, something isn’t working properly. I have written several other blogs in regards to what might be going on. You may want to read those articles if you’re struggling with heartburn or any other reflux related symptoms: coughing, sore throat, sinus congestion, excessive mucous clearing. The links for these articles is at the bottom of this blog.

Of note, these stomach acid reducing medications serve a vital use, and they are not necessarily bad medications. They are to be used in the short-term for decreasing stomach acid, but you must repair your digestion to get off of the medication and prevent recurrence of heartburn / reflux.


Personal Story:

Four years ago, I had to take omeprazole for 2 weeks during my second year of residency. I woke up at 2am with severe upper stomach pain. Of course, being the medical professional that I am, I knew I was having a heart attack. Before calling 9-1-1, I woke up my wife (who is also a physician). She calmly advised me to take TUMS and go back to sleep. As usual, she was right. I took some TUMS, and the pain subsided enough for me to get to the pharmacy in the morning to pick up omeprazole. Bad eating habits, poor sleep, and excessive stress caused Stress Gastritis.

Last night, I ate a slice of pepperoni pizza, which is a known trigger for me. I developed heartburn an hour later, so I took a tablet of Betaine HCl and two capsules of digestive enzymes, which resolved my heartburn in 30 minutes. It sounds contradictory to take acid when you’re having heartburn, but for most people, it works.

Moving on.

Now, I want to discuss the hidden long-term side effects of these stomach acid reducing medications. Most people taking these medications do not know about these harmful side effects. However, as we all inherently know, you cannot have a good without at least a trace element of bad to go with it. We all know the good: Less heartburn. But, what’s the bad?

Problem #1: Low Magnesium

Low magnesium has been attributed to these medications since their release. However, not much attention is paid to it because low magnesium is hard to detect. Low magnesium has obscure symptoms: anxiety, tremor, restless legs, muscle cramps, headaches, and poor sleep. At its extreme, it can cause a fatal heart rhythm called ventricular fibrillation or Torsades de Pointes. Obviously, if this were happening more often, we would be talking about it more.

PicMonkey-Collage9On a related side note, a problem I frequently see with my new patients is low potassium. They are frequently taking potassium chloride, which is a massive pill that tastes terrible, and it doesn’t slide down the throat very well. It may surprise you to know that your kidneys require magnesium in order to absorb potassium. If you have low potassium, then you need to replace your magnesium in addition to potassium. Usually, you can get off of the potassium if you do this.

The true magnesium level is difficult to test. Do not rely on a “normal” magnesium level on your blood work. The amount of magnesium in your bloodstream is almost always “normal.” Your body keeps very close tabs on the magnesium level because of the risk of fatal heart rhythms. The reason that the blood level remains constant is because your cells sacrifice their magnesium stores in order to maintain blood levels. A better test is the RBC Magnesium, which checks the amount of magnesium inside of the red blood cell. However, this test is also rarely abnormal as magnesium is normal in the blood stream, and where do the red blood cells live? In the blood stream! Your cellular and organ tissues are the ones that are depleted in magnesium. The only way to test those is to do tissue biopsies, and I don’t hear anyone signing up for liver biopsies for “fun-zees.”

20130405_161Moral of the story: If you’re taking stomach acid reducers: please take extra magnesium, preferably in a highly absorbable form like magnesium glycinate. I like the ones from PURE Encapsulations (capsules) and Metagenics (tablets). Magnesium glycinate is rather inexpensive. Take 1 twice per day. Lower the dosage if diarrhea develops.

Problem #2: Higher risk of pneumonia

pneumoniaWhile taking these medications, you are at higher risk of pneumonia. True story. I don’t think the mechanism is very well described. If you know me, you know that I have created my own reasons for things to make sense, so here is my theory on the increased risk of pneumonia.

If you’re neutralizing the acid in your stomach, then the bacteria and viruses that you consume in your food (or regular activities of daily living), then you cannot destroy those bacteria and viruses as well with neutral acid. You are more likely to get sick from them. Moreover, if you have heartburn, it’s because acid is refluxing into your esophagus and airways. When you neutralize the acid, it doesn’t burn as much, but it’s not stopping the acid from jumping out. Therefore, any bacteria in your food or saliva get frequent attempts to infect your lungs every time they are “refluxed” into your airways.

Problem #3: Increased risk of C. diff colitis

Screen-Shot-2015-05-04-at-6.09.19-PM-e1430796080274The risk of C. diff is a well-documented phenomenon. If you don’t know, C. diff colitis is one of the worst diarrheal illnesses that you can suffer. It kills many elderly people annually due to its aggressive nature. It is one of the few bacteria that create spores to spread. These spores are tough. Very tough! They are designed to be eaten and survive digestion. It’s not too hard to understand that by decreasing your stomach acid, you become even more susceptible to these spores. Once C. diff lives in your bowels, it awaits for you to get ill and take too many antibiotics. Once the other bacteria that keep it in check die off, it launches into full-blown infection causing profuse, watery, explosive diarrhea with chunks of colonic tissue. It causes an extreme colonic inflammation to the point of forming a false-appearing membrane, which earned it a name by colonoscopy: Pseudomembranous Colitis. People who survive this illness wouldn’t wish it on their enemies. Want to know what’s even worse?   Because C. diff thrives in the presence of antibiotics, it is frequently resistant to antibiotics. Fun! Yet another scary fact: 40% of hospital workers already carry C. diff.

The good news is the probiotic Saccromyces boulardii helps prevent against antibiotic-associated C. diff colitis. Next time you take antibiotics, find some!

Problem #4: Decreased bone density (osteoporosis)

princ_rm_photo_of_stages_of_osteoporosisYet another well-documented side effect is the loss of bone mass when taking stomach acid reducers for long periods if time. The mechanism is very similar to magnesium deficiency. Stomach acid is required to absorb minerals. It just so happens that magnesium and calcium are very similar in structure. In fact, they’re next-door neighbors on the periodic table both with a 2+ ionic charge. I don’t need to belabor this point since I think everyone knows that bones are made of calcium. If you are not absorbing calcium, then your body steals it from your bones to maintain blood levels.

Side note soap box: I am not a fan of taking extra calcium, so do not take extra calcium to combat this side effect. Instead, you must work on absorbing the calcium that should already be found in your diet from eating leafy green vegetables. Even though dairy products are high in calcium, you shouldn’t reach for more dairy products for your calcium. As Americans, we eat enough dairy! Besides, it’s not naturally found in high quantities in dairy – it’s added to dairy products for marketing.

If you want my opinions on how to improve bone density, we should discuss your case in more detail. I also plan to write a blog about osteoporosis in the future.

Problem #5: Addictive

Have you ever tried to stop taking these medications cold turkey? Wow! You thought that you had heartburn before, but when you stop these medications, you get heartburn like never before. Of course, you assume that your heartburn has gotten worse, so you continue taking it because it’s “protecting” you. However, this is not true, and it is an expected outcome.

As it turns out, your body doesn’t like it when you neutralize your stomach acid. In fact, it begins ramping up production of the hormone called Gastrin to stimulate the acid. This hormone goes to the cells of the stomach and tells them to make more acid! …more, more, more!

However, as long as you’re taking stomach acid reducers, the cells are crippled: they cannot produce additional acid. So …. what does the body do?

Well, it makes more gastrin! …and more gastrin …and more gastrin …and more gastrin …you get the point.

Then, when you abruptly stop the stomach acid reducers, all of a sudden, this massive amount of gastrin goes to town on the stomach cells. Now, they are producing more stomach acid than they’ve ever produced in their entire lives – even when there’s no food present. The massive influx of acid on an ill-prepared stomach lining causes severe symptoms nearly immediately.

Bonus Problem: Diarrhea

I’m not going to discuss this in detail because most Americans are constipated from the lack of fiber that we eat, so Americans rarely (if ever) get diarrhea from these medications. If anything, Americans become more regular on these medications and enjoy this side effect!

Now that you know about the ill effects of these medications, read more about How Reflux Develops and How to Restore Your Natural Digestion.

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How Reflux and Heartburn Develops

Most doctors have probably told you that you have TOO MUCH stomach acid. Today, I’m going to warp your brain and explain how you might actually have TOO LITTLE stomach acid.

HG160_esophagus-gerd_FSAs it stands now, tons of Americans are taking heartburn or reflux medications like Prilosec (omeprazole), Nexium (esomeprazole), and Zantac (ranitidine). It is a growing problem. In fact, if you’re reading this article, there’s a high chance that you’re taking a stomach acid reducing medication. These medications are in the top five most prescribed and used drugs in America. We have been told that if you have heartburn, inflamed stomach lining, peptic ulcers, or reflux that you need to be taking stomach acid reducers to protect your stomach because you have too much stomach acid.

The proposed mechanism is that your stomach is making too much stomach acid, and it’s pouring into your throat (esophagus) and causing your symptoms. It has nothing to do with the fast food, candy, and soda that we might drink every day.

acidrefluxcoughHowever, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest that for many people this is completely wrong. I, like most other medical doctors, were taught information that was believed to be true, but may actually not be true.

Here’s the counter argument. After reading this explanation, you can make the decision for yourself. Which one makes more sense to you?

The stomach is a rather simple organ. It is responsible for beginning digestion. It has two main ways to digest.

The first way is for it to create stomach acid, which breaks down fats and proteins. The second way is by mechanical churning. This is like kneading dough – its physical labor.

The stomach prefers to break food down with stomach acid while doing very little churning. There are two outlets from the stomach: Up or Down.

  • Contents can go up into the esophagus and cause heartburn, coughing, sore throat, horse voice, and throat clearing.
  • Or, more appropriately, the stomach contents can go down into the small intestine through the pylorus.


These two exits are not equal. The pylorus (down) is more like a bank door vault. It only opens if you hit the right combination. For the pylorus, the right combination is the appropriate amount of acid: a lot of acid!

The other exit, the one that goes up into your esophagus, is a very poor door. It’s more like a screen door. Things can enter fairly easily with little force.

Now that you understand how contents leave the stomach, let’s imagine a scenario. Imagine that you are a standard American. You eat regular amounts of fast food and soda. You consume too much sugar combined with saturated and trans fats. You’re expecting your stomach to be able to break down these foods. However, over time, the stomach cannot keep up with the amount of acid required to break down these heavy foods. Especially since the amount of inflammation and stress in your body is beginning to affect the cells of your stomach.

Since the stomach can’t break down the food chemically due to lack of stomach acid, it begins relying on the churning more heavily. The stomach wrenches down on the minimally digested food, attempting to push it out either exit. The stomach attempts to force food through the pylorus, but it is shut tight. The pylorus, the bank vault door, remains closed. While the stomach is increasing pressure on the food, some of it begins refuxing up to the esophagus through “the screen door” since it is easily pushed open.

So, as the stomach wrenches and writhes, it begins shooting acid into your swallowing tube, your airway, and your sinuses. This can cause a myriad of symptoms from sore throat, sinus drainage, and heartburn. Some people only have a nagging cough that never goes away. It can also cause mucous on your vocal cords. Do you clear your throat excessively?

While I will agree that the symptoms are caused by acid, I will not agree that it is caused by too much acid in all cases. Quite frankly, the only place that acid should be found is inside the walls in the stomach. Therefore, any amount of acid not inside of the stomach should cause symptoms.

Now that you understand how decreased stomach acid can cause heartburn and reflux, you may be eager to find out how to get off of those addictive stomach acid reducers. Read my next blog to learn how to improve stomach acid and digestion:

3 Steps to Improve Reflux Naturally

5 Reasons to get off of stomach acid reducing medications


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A Simple Way to Improve Brain Fog

person-947709_960_720Have you ever tried typing on a keyboard that is missing keys? Probably not. Do you think you could read sentences that are typed on a keyboard missing keys?

“It tuns out that if you ty to ead sentenes that ae missing lettes, you an still undestand the majoity of the ontext. It takes moe fous, onentation, and effot, but you an still do it.”

As you can probably tell from the context above, you can still read sentences even if they’re missing letters. It takes more mental effort and some of the specifics are unclear.

What about if the letters are mixed up?

“I cnduo’t bvleiee taht I culod aulaclty uesdtannrd waht I was rdnaieg. Unisg the icndeblire pweor of the hmuan mnid, aocdcrnig to rseecrah at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it dseno’t mttaer in waht oderr the lterets in a wrod are, the olny irpoamtnt tihng is taht the frsit and lsat ltteer be in the rhgit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it whoutit a pboerlm. Tihs is bucseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey ltteer by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Aaznmig, huh? Yaeh and I awlyas tghhuot slelinpg was ipmorantt! See if yuor fdreins can raed tihs too.”

The point of that message is that food is information to your brain just like a keyboard is information to your computer. Eating bad food is like typing on a broken keyboard.

Have you heard of the gut-brain connection?

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